International Journal of Coercion, Abuse, and Manipulation Compares NXIVM and Scientology

By Paul Serran

The International Journal of Coercion, Abuse, and Manipulation (IJCAM) released, in June of 2021, a Special Edition: “Comparative Reflections on Scientology and NXIVM”.

In it, we find a long and meaningful article by Stephen Kent, a professor from the Department of Sociology of the University of Alberta, Canada.

In analyzing the recurring claims that NXIVM’s Keith Raniere was influenced by Ron L. Hubbard and his Scientology, Dr. Kent highlights the similarities and differences in the patterns of alleged coercion, abuse, and manipulation involving the two groups.

While doing so, the author ends up finding a deeper lien uniting these two ‘cult leaders’, by way of a dark psychological condition: malignant narcissism.

Not surprisingly, professor Kent’s study makes frequent resort to opinions and analysis by Frank Parlato, and to materials posted over the years on the Frank Report. In fact, a good deal of the comparison between the two alleged ‘cult-like organizations’ is based on a post published on the Frank Report by a poster who called himself ‘John P. Capitalist’, “who indicated that he was ‘a Wall Street money manager and IT specialist fascinated by irrationality in all its forms, and Scientology most of all'”.

According to professor Kent, both Toni Natalie and Heidi Hutchinson stated that Raniere had read Scientology materials.

Mark Vicente: “I actually heard [Raniere] talk negatively about Scientology”. Kent makes a point: “[Vicente’s] report that Raniere believed more in the effectiveness of his own techniques is to be expected” in the light of his narcissism.

“The differences between Scientology and NXIVM are, in some ways, quite significant,” he ponders in his IJCAM article. “They do not cancel, however, what appear to be significant similarities.”

Both organizations “promised transformative technologies for self-improvement but […] developed totalistic practices that trapped many members in systems of self- (and organizational-) harm”.

Below, we will briefly discuss some of the striking similarities between NXIVM and Scientology found by ‘Capitalist’, Professor Kent and others.

  1. Litigation — Kent notes that both groups used “scorched-earth litigation tactics against opponents”. Raniere’s suits may have cost as much as $50 million in legal fees.

Frank Report’s readers know all about the blatant pattern of judicial harassment displayed by NXIVM against Rick Ross, Sarah Edmondson, Toni Natalie, Frank Parlato, among so many others.

Ron Hubbard and his Scientology infamously got the FBI to investigate critical journalist, Paulette Cooper “on false bomb-threat allegations”.

“Frank Parlato”, continues Kent, “produced quotes from [Ron L.] Hubbard’s writings about how he wanted his organization to use litigation against perceived opponents”.

It involved “using lawsuits to harass and discourage rather than win; retaliating against people who ‘attack Scientology;’ and finding or manufacturing critics’ vulnerabilities for use in neutralizing them.”

Parlato also “provided a quote of several sentences in which Hubbard insisted that a commitment to Scientology was ‘for the duration of the universe,’ and that Scientologists would ‘rather have you dead than incapable.'”

Kent quotes Parlato’s conclusion: “After reading some of [Hubbard’s] quotes, I suspect Keith Raniere borrowed more than just terminology from Hubbard, but also his strategy for attacking attackers”.

Raniere used to falsely allege many achievements in his website.
  1. Fabricated Background: leaders of both organizations “inflated and fabricated aspects of their backgrounds and credentials”.

Readers of the Frank Report have regaled themselves often with the ridiculous claims Raniere has made, while professor Kent reminds us that there is otherwise court transcript evidence “showing that [Raniere] had received ‘an F in advanced ordinary differential equations, an F in theoretical physics, and an F in quantum mechanics,’ plus ‘a D in experimental physics'”.

“Hubbard, too, made fraudulent claims”, writes Kent, “that he was a physicist, a civil engineer, and a PhD, even lying about having a bachelor’s degree.”

In this point is where professor Stephen Kent gets to a deeper connection between the Hubbard and Raniere: “The parallel, however, of credentials-inflation probably does not indicate inspirational borrowing but rather suggests a shared personality disorder between the two founders” (italics are mine).

  1. Secrecy of the “Tech”. That is “the term that both Hubbard and Raniere applied to the techniques that they used in courses”. The article shows the equivalency of “Raniere’s efforts to protect their public circulation and the extensive efforts that Scientology took to keep its own secret doctrines and techniques off of the internet.”

The article notes what we have long known, that “all NXIVM participants had to sign a dizzying array of nondisclosure agreements”.

Other attempt at secrecy seemed to be the gathering of ‘collateral’ – what Mark Vicente called in court ‘blackmail material’.

“NXIVM leaders used collateral to ensure secrecy about course content, the nature and activities of an abusive female sorority called DOS […] and the sexual activities in which Raniere engaged with numerous women”.

  1. Obsession with “Ethics” – the Mission Statement from Executive Success Programs courses contains the pledge “to ethically control as much of the money, wealth and resources of the world as possible within my success plan”.

Espians, as readers of the Frank Report know so well, regarded their Vanguard as “the most ethical man in the world”.

Kent brings this illuminating excerpt of Mark Vicente’s statement at Raniere’s sentencing:

“He has belief that he is the next evolution of humankind. Beyond worldly ethics and morality. Far superior to this court. He thinks he breathes the rarified air of an awakened genius. But he is none of those things. He is a malicious, petty, evil and dangerously vengeful sociopath.”

The article reminds us that Scientology is a much larger and much older organization, going on since the 50’s, meaning that “the ethics system that Hubbard developed was less about enhancing his own status through direct interpersonal interactions but more about re-socializing members into the ethical systems that were at the foundation of his organization, including his desire to thrust Scientology into a position of world dominance.”

NXIVM taught Executive Success Programs.
  1. Expansion from Core Self-Help Claims into Other Areas: Both Scientology and NXIVM eventually “developed programs that went beyond their original self-help intents.”

The anonymous Frank Report reader/poser who calls himself “John P. Capitalist” speculated that Hubbard and Raniere created their programs because: “1) the programs validated their ‘super-genius’ origin stories; 2) the programs attempted to create second generation cult members; and 3) the programs were recruitment tools for attracting new members.”

  1. Blatant Disregard for Basic Human Rights:

“Scientology has engaged in all sorts of quack research on the ‘tech’ of self-help,” Capitalist wrote, while “NXIVM was accused of conducting experiments in brain activity on several members without consent and without any sort of scientific basis”.

Hubbard “instructed Scientologists to isolate the psychotic, not speak to him or her, give the person-specific vitamins and minerals, and begin ‘auditing‘. The auditing case supervisor, whose only required training was Scientology, had the responsibility to decide when to release a supposed psychotic patient from isolation.”

MK10ART’s painting of Dr. Brandon ‘Mengele’ Porter joyfully conducting a human fright experiment.

Readers of the Report know how all about how NXIVM’s Dr. Brandon Porter conducted the infamous ‘fright study’ that led him to losing his license to practice medicine in New York.

Professor Kent notes that “a recent source identified [Raniere] as a malignant narcissist”, a person who would “seethe with revenge against people whom they feel have slighted, challenged, mocked, or rejected them.”

  1. Inner circle facilitators: the article in the IJCAM reminds us that “both Scientology and NXIVM have/had a group of exclusive supporters who facilitated their charismatic leaders’ visions and projects while attempting to protect them from internal and external hostile forces.”

In both organizations, “some inner circle facilitators changed their statuses to critics”.

  1. Wealthy Benefactors: “Both organizations received contributions from wealthy benefactors. Prosecutors in the Raniere case estimate that Clare Bronfman may have funded NXIVM, Raniere, his lawsuits, and his patents to the tune of at least $116 million.”
  2. Spying on Critics: Both organizations had surveillance and spied on critics. According to the government’s sentencing memorandum against Raniere:

“Raniere and his co-conspirators engaged in unlawful surveillance and investigation of his perceived enemies…. The targets of these efforts included federal judges overseeing litigation in which NXIVM was a party, high-ranking politicians, reporters who had published articles critical of Raniere or NXIVM, NXIVM’s own lawyers, legal adversaries and their families, an accountant (James Loperfido) who worked for an attorney who had previously done work for NXIVM, and Edgar Bronfman Sr., the father of Clare Bronfman “

If Clare Bronfman spied on her father, the second (and current) Scientology leader, David Miscavige, also put his own father, Ron Miscavige, a critic of Scientology, under surveillance.  Kent quotes L. Helmar: “When it appeared (incorrectly) that Ron was having a heart attack, the private investigator phoned David, asking what to do. The son instructed the private investigator ‘to let his father die and to not intervene’”.

  1. Abortions: as Raniere was having sex with everyone in his inner circle, and did not use condoms, Toni Natalie wrote that “all of this unprotected sex led to numerous pregnancies, and these numerous pregnancies led to the same number of terminations.”

“A female member of his inner circle, Pam Cafritz,” states professor Kent, “handled the abortion arrangements”.

As for Scientology, the allegations involving members’ abortions date back at least to the late 1980s. “Assuming that the earlier accounts were reasonably accurate, they probably reflected ‘the attitude among […] leadership that children hinder adults from performing their vital assignments'”.

MK10ART’s sketch of Daniela
  1. Isolated Confinement: the article recounts how an aspect of Raniere’s trafficking conviction was the restraint of Daniela, in the words of prosecutors “for labor and services by confining her to a room for nearly two years on the threat of being sent to Mexico and withholding her birth certificate”.

In Scientology, accounts of confinement involve a larger number a people, over a period of years, in Scientology facilities all over the world.

“One wonders why both Hubbard and Raniere became so upset when people had age appropriate romantic feelings or sexual attractions.” Stephen Kent zeroes in on a central issue. “A possible explanation is that […] emotional bonds between members may compete and interfere with their members’ emotional (and practical) abilities to commit completely to those leaders or the organizations that they have created.”

“Eliminating emotional ‘competition’ was paramount for Hubbard and Raniere”, the article concludes, “because both leaders/founders possessed characteristics of malignant narcissists.”

  1. Malignant narcissism: “The retaliatory and aggressive policies that existed in both Scientology and NXIVM likely reflected the probable personality disorders of their founders.”

The article in the IJCAM arrives at the possibility that the “[c]haracteristics that the two founders shared — fabricated backgrounds, grandiosity, lack of empathy as demonstrated in human rights violations, entitlements around confining the uncooperative or troublesome, interfering with women’s reproductive rights — simply may reflect attitudes and behaviors that grow out of a shared personality disorder” (italics are mine).

The fire-brand was an expression of “excessive adoration” demanded by narcissists.

A mark of the malignant narcissist is the constant need for “excessive admiration”. Be it Scientology’s “billion year contracts” or DOS’ pelvic fire-brands, they display the pathological necessity of “appropriate indicators of [the follower’s] commitment to [their] domination.”

Professor Kent’s article does not exhaust the subject, in fact points out otherwise that this is a fertile ground for further studies. The article is also yet another reminder that Frank Parlato and his Frank Report are not only the mandatory stop in the study of ‘all things NXIVM’, but also a strong reference in the fight against coercive, abusive and manipulative societies in our times.

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Paul Serran

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1 year ago

I just watched, “The Vow” and noticed right away that Scientology and NXIVM even share some terminology. For instance, anyone who questions or fact checks any part of the organization is labeled a “Suppressive Person” as a means to discourage critical thinking. Those people are then shunned, so they can’t spread suspicion and put a pin in the bubble of illusion that isolates the members from reality.


[…] readers, so I have been writing reviews on articles and studies included in this issue, such as the comparison between NXIVM and Scientology by Professor Stephen Kent, and “Preventing Predatory Alienation by High-Control […]


[…] * Comparison between NXIVM and Scientology, by Stephen Kent […]


[…] wrote a review of an important article by Professor Stephen Kent on the comparison between NXIVM and Scientology, but there’s plenty more in that issue that […]

Linda west
Linda west
2 years ago

Same as Landmark too


[…] of some scholarly studies in the International Journal of Coercion, Abuse, and Manipulation. In my last article, I reviewed professor Stephen Kent’s “Comparative Reflections on Scientology And […]

Nice Guy
Nice Guy
2 years ago

Paul Serran-

I greatly enjoyed reading this article.

Thank you!

Heidi H
Heidi H
2 years ago

Someday I’ll finish my Scientology story of “How KAR rescued me from Scientology in 1989” and wreaked my promising Hollywood rock star career (lol). I had a post on it for you back in 2018 but don’t know if it was sent or completed amidst other priorities including protecting my son amidst predators.

The gist of it is that Keith put Gina on a mission to help keep me from being ensnared by a bad group of Scientologists I fell in with — I sang and composed with a Scientology band, was dating the lead guitarist, we rehearsed in their Hollywood Celebrity Center and Keith had Gina collecting Scientology “tech” data to analyze in order to facilitate my Hollywood rescue, etc. Gina was also being courted by a band member when she visited who of course tried to hook her into Scientology — it’s constant pressure on initiates with these freakazoids. I’ll never forget being trapped in a sauna wearing a towel with a butt naked Axel Rose wreaking like a drunk sweat hog (albeit well hanging) extolling the virtues of the Scientology tech between sips of vodka. Thought I was gonna die.

Keith ridiculed it all, put me in fear of it, my band mates and getting AIDS from my rocker boyfriend, etc.

I recall Keith reciting an L. Ron Hubbard quote I’ve never forgotten: “If you want to get rich, START A RELIGION!”

Heidi H
Heidi H
2 years ago

Pam Cafritz, my sister, Gina Hutchinson, and other defenseless dead people seem to be getting the sole blame for activities that I know for a fact other core inner-circle acolytes from early on were involved in. What is Professor Kent’s source for the statement that Pam (alone) made the abortion arrangements?

Is it perchance the same unmentionable 2016 source who apparently misinformed Frank in an “Art Voice” post that Keith forced the girls to use birth control and made no mention of the abortions at that time?

Heidi H
Heidi H
2 years ago

Agree. Well writ. Are you still intrigued with the QAnon pig slop, Mr. Serran, or over it now that we know more about THAT narcissistic farce threatening to rip Democracy to shreds just for “shits and giggles?”

I’d love to hear what an apparently otherwise intelligent voice such as yours has to say about that. Do you know the Watkins brothers or any of the Q Anon “shitters and gigglers” from Brazil?

And, will Mr. Roger Stone – whom I’m quoting – be retiring to a pig farm there anytime soon?

2 years ago

For me, the clearest connection between Scientology and NXIVM was the use of EMs on Danielle, who had been Keith’s undocumented slave and who’d hacked Father Bronfman’s email and distributed them to the team for years. Once she’d found a boy she wanted to be in love with, and told Keith, she was – all of a sudden – “aberrated” in Scientology terms. She needed to be “handled”.

And so, with all that she knew about the inner workings of NXIVM, and the danger her knowledge and possible disloyalty posed, she was sequestered in her room and made to work out her ‘aberrations’, with occasional EMs to view her progress.

This is totally Scientology. Scientology auditing, which I presently understand to be similar to EMs, can be used to help people, or to enslave them. And when I learned about Daniele, I saw Keith’s clear understanding of Scientology and the dual purpose of “therapy” as it is used in the abuse of power.

People DO have “aberrations” and trauma that can hold them back personally. And there ARE therapeutic techniques that can help people overcome that. But when ‘aberration’ is assigned to knowledge and disloyalty to the group or ideology, then the use of therapy becomes a totalitarian nightmare.

Like the Church of Scientology is under David Miscavige. And how NXIVM was for the inner circle around Keith Raniere.

Neither Scientology nor NXIVM had to be used this way. But this is the arc of descent for many human beings who have tasted the power of the position of cult leader.


(PS I hope I’m not mixing parts of Camilla’s story up with Danielle’s – am I?)

(PSS, I’ve not seen how EMs work. Does anyone have any documentation on EM procedure that I can look over? Email me at

2 years ago

It’s pretty clear that Keith just cribbed from Scientology. To be fair, the basics of cult management are pretty universal, they just happened to be one of the best, long-lasting examples that he could copy from.

Most Scientologists that joined the cult from the 70s to early ’00s have the excuse of not being able to do any real easy research on the cult so unable to stumble across the huge red flags about it. Red flags they try to hide but no longer can thanks to the internet. NXIVM followers, at least in its early beginnings, also had the same excuse since it was a relatively small cult centered in New York State. That early more, or less, anonymity is what allowed both to flourish.

Scientology used those decades to create generational followers. Many are children and even grandchildren of early followers, who in turn recruit close friends and other family members. They were smart – they headquartered in Hollywood to grab that money early and use those famous faces to boost recruitment numbers. My understanding is now that the crazy of Scientology has become relatively common knowledge, their recruitment ability has taken a significant tumble as have their overall followers count but they used the decades and Hollywood wealth to build a lasting infrastructure in CA, FL and elsewhere that makes them not rely on recruitment to keep the top tier of the org fat and happy.

I suspect Keith was aiming for that same generational followers and wealth which is why he half-heartedly recruited Hollywood starlets (Clyne, Mack, etc.) being examples but because he had Bronfman money early, he didn’t put nearly as much importance on that as he probably should have (aka failed to grasp the why of Scientology’s Hollywood focus). This likely stymied early growth and the ability to build a significant lasting infrastructure. He should have used those C-listers to take aim at B-listers and A-listers but a consistent theme emerges – he allowed his dick to do most of his thinking. He had a few Hollywood hotties and was content with that, had access to millions (but could have been billions) and was happy with that, and became obsessed with “owning” the females he was attracted to rather than being content with the attention he could easily get. I suspect at any given time he could have walked up to most women in the org and got laid without all the BS he engaged in since women have a tendency to confuse asshole and narcissism as confidence. The high-value Americans place on “confidence” is frankly bat shit stupid.

Which brings me to “Malignant narcissism.” Starting to think this concept needs to be taught in middle school and high school. As recent elections have shown, at least 75 million Americans cannot recognize it. Most can’t even recognize basic narcissism. Seems to be in best personal interest, and now national interest, if people could recognize the signs early on rather than after it is far too late and the damage is done to their personal lives.

2 years ago
Reply to  Erasend

— I suspect at any given time he could have walked up to most women in the org and got laid without all the BS he engaged in since women have a tendency to confuse asshole and narcissism as confidence. The high-value Americans place on “confidence” is frankly bat shit stupid.

Sorry, but women aren’t that stupid in general despite what misogynists say.

While groupies exist for rock stars and actors willing to easily put out, they don’t exist for cross-eyed, short, stocky, cult leaders who talk word salad. That bridge needs to built and crossed with myth building, mind bending, and peer pressure.

2 years ago
Reply to  Anonymous

Pss, re-read the sentence. I said “in the org.” which is short for “organization” which in the context of this blog should make you think NXIVM. As in the cult. Not the public in general. Those in the cult were already thinking he hung the moon. In effect they are the groupies of your rock star analogy. I know, the opportunity to virtue signal overwhelmed you. Its ok. It happens. Shake it off by hitting up twitter.

2 years ago
Reply to  Erasend

Plenty of women IN THE ORG didn’t fall for him, since most who were in it, weren’t there long term. So no.

2 years ago

I never even knew The International Journal of Abuse and Manipulation was a thing. It explains a lot though, as I know a few folks with lifetime subscriptions.

2 years ago

Every time I’m about to stop following this blog due to the appearance of a spate of posts that doesn’t fit my interests, suddenly a new one pops up that signals me I should still remain a follower. Frank, you’re a great strategist publicist.

2 years ago
Reply to  Paul Serran

Of course! I’m the thankful one.

About the Author

Frank Parlato is an investigative journalist.

His work has been cited in hundreds of news outlets, like The New York Times, The Daily Mail, VICE News, CBS News, Fox News, New York Post, New York Daily News, Oxygen, Rolling Stone, People Magazine, The Sun, The Times of London, CBS Inside Edition, among many others in all five continents.

His work to expose and take down NXIVM is featured in books like “Captive” by Catherine Oxenberg, “Scarred” by Sarah Edmonson, “The Program” by Toni Natalie, and “NXIVM. La Secta Que Sedujo al Poder en México” by Juan Alberto Vasquez.

Parlato has been prominently featured on HBO’s docuseries “The Vow” and was the lead investigator and coordinating producer for Investigation Discovery’s “The Lost Women of NXIVM.” Parlato was also credited in the Starz docuseries "Seduced" for saving 'slave' women from being branded and escaping the sex-slave cult known as DOS.

Additionally, Parlato’s coverage of the group OneTaste, starting in 2018, helped spark an FBI investigation, which led to indictments of two of its leaders in 2023.

Parlato appeared on the Nancy Grace Show, Beyond the Headlines with Gretchen Carlson, Dr. Oz, American Greed, Dateline NBC, and NBC Nightly News with Lester Holt, where Parlato conducted the first-ever interview with Keith Raniere after his arrest. This was ironic, as many credit Parlato as one of the primary architects of his arrest and the cratering of the cult he founded.

Parlato is a consulting producer and appears in TNT's The Heiress and the Sex Cult, which premiered on May 22, 2022. Most recently, he consulted and appeared on Tubi's "Branded and Brainwashed: Inside NXIVM," which aired January, 2023.

IMDb — Frank Parlato

Contact Frank with tips or for help.
Phone / Text: (305) 783-7083


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