By Dianne Lipson
Lauren Salzman is done testifying in the trial of Keith Alan Raniere. Senior U.S. District Judge Nicholas Garaufis cut off Raniere’s attorney, Marc Agnifilo’s cross-examination at the end of the day Wednesday.
He was concerned she would have a nervous breakdown.
Agnifilo began his cross-examination of Lauren late Wednesday morning, asking her questions about her role in confining Daniela, a Mexican woman, to a room in Clifton Park for nearly two years.
In the morning Lauren broke down and sobbed uncontrollably.
In the afternoon, Agnifilo’s relentless questioning brought Lauren to tears several times. It was a very emotional day for her.
Agnifilo worked slowly throughout the afternoon, picking things apart, showing wherever he could that Lauren believed she was doing good. And trying to show Keith created everything good in Nxivm.
There was discussion about what collateral was and how it was collected. Lauren said collateral was to back your word.
She explained that collateral was something that showed that you cared enough. It was supposed to be something painful and uncomfortable. And with that, it is supposed to help you uphold your commitment.
Agnifilo was making points. He continued to elicit comments from Lauren of the good in Nxivm and even in DOS.
She said collateral was to show you had each other’s back. But women, she was taught, were not reliable; women didn’t have strong commitments. Collateral helped women be stronger.
Earlier it was revealed that Keith said he could command a married woman to sleep with a man who was not her husband. Agnifilo asked Lauren if Keith had ever done anything like that.
Lauren said, “I don’t know.”
[We do know he ordered Sylvie, who was married, to have sex with him.]
Agnifilo asked if any of Lauren’s slaves were commanded to have sex with Keith.
Lauren said “No.” She didn’t even know DOS had a sexual component.
Agnifilo asked about people hacking into the Nxivm computer.
Lauren said, after DOS became public, someone did hack into the Nxivm computer. And someone took a picture of Allison Mack’s computer.
There were questions about readiness drills. Agnifilo tried to elicit from Lauren that readiness drills were a good thing.
“Isn’t it meant to make people stronger? It’s all about preparedness.”
Agnifilo brought up about how in Mexico there were kidnappings. And that was a concern. And that someone had been impacted by one of these kidnappings. Agnifilo said readiness drills could mobilize people on a moment’s notice of any alarms.
Agnifilo said readiness drills could be put in motion if someone was missing.
He asked Lauren if there were any collateral released because of failure of readiness drills.
Lauren answered that she knew of no one whose collateral was released.
There was talk about penance. Like standing in the snow or paddling.
Lauren said that the most committed people do the strongest penance – like the dungeon stuff. That would be the most committed people.
Agnifilo said, “I didn’t mention the dungeon Why did you say it?”
They got into “acts of care.” That its purpose was to build character.
Agnifilo was trying to make acts of care look like a very good thing. Lauren agreed that acts of care showed you cared about somebody.
He was next characterizing DOS as a women’s empowerment group.
Lauren agreed, saying the theory of DOS was “women for women.”
Regarding DOS having a strong influence in the world, he asked if she believed this might be a good thing? Lauren said, “I believed in this area of it.”
“Do you believe that you could be involved in something wonderful and important?”
Lauren said “Yes. DOS was also an opportunity to grow.”
Agnifilo brought up that she testified that branding was a way to symbolize overcoming pain for a principle and that that concept resonated with her — overcoming pain for principle.
“So what did that mean to you?”
Lauren paused. Then said it had something to do with the human pain curriculum, that we know love through pain. And it was good to do things counter to our interests, to be unselfish, and to be happy, an opportunity to do difficult things that would help you grow.
For Lauren, it was to visit Keith and Mariana and their baby. That caused a lot of pain for her. [She had been promised a baby by Keith for years and instead, Mariana had a baby with him.]
But this helped Lauren become stronger. She was doing things only for the sake of love.
She would watch Keith and Mariana with their baby, even though Lauren didn’t have a baby. And that would help Lauren become stronger. Lauren wanted to do what it took.
It appealed to Lauren, at one time, she admitted, that the first line slaves will always be part of her life and would always share everything. Now, she said she sees that it wasn’t really true.
Lauren said that Keith invited her to DOS to bring her and Keith closer.
As the afternoon progressed, Agnifilo became more relentless in his cross-examination.
He showed that Lauren slaves knew what they were getting into; they had seen a stencil of the brand prior to being branded. They all knew what the brand was.
After Jimena Garza was branded and was screaming – she was the one who was screaming when she was being branded – Agnifilo asked if everyone still went through with the branding?
Lauren said yes. But added that during Jimena’s branding, she screamed that she wanted to stop, but Lauren told her “No, you can’t stop.”
Agnifilo noted the “collateral” was never released on any DOS slaves even after they left the group.
Lauren agreed but disagreed that DOS was harmless, saying, “It isn’t true that nothing bad happened!”
At one point, Agnifilo returned to one of his favorite red herring topics – of Frank Parlato – who he has brought up numerous times.
Agnifilo asked Lauren if Mark Vicente was feeding information to Parlato?
Lauren: “I don’t know.”
Lauren also didn’t know the details of Parlato’s dealings with Keith.
Agnifilo clearly sought to portray Lauren as a scorned lover. He asked her if she still loved Raniere, noting she wanted to have a baby with him.
Lauren started crying as Agnifilo asked her about her conduct. He said that Raniere slept with numerous other women.
He asked her if she intended to commit crimes such as extortion.
Agnifilo asked: “When you were in DOS, was it your intention to hurt people?“
Lauren, sobbing, said she was trying to prove herself to Keith, trying to salvage their relationship.
“I was trying to prove my self-worth,” Salzman said, crying nearly uncontrollably. “I put it above everything else.”
The Judge suddenly shouted at Agnifilo, in front of the jury, “OK — we’re done! You’re done! I said we’re done. Sit down!”
He dismissed Lauren and released the jurors for the day.
When the jury left, Agnifilo asked the judge why he cut him off.
The judge said these questions are important, but it wasn’t important enough for the witness to have a nervous breakdown.
“I thought it was extremely excruciating,” the judge said. “I tried to cut off the line of questioning. You just went right back. You went way over the line. This is not DOS. This is not the allegation. This is a broken person.”
He said he didn’t want Lauren to have a nervous breakdown in court.
“I had a crisis here,” Garaufis said, “and not in my courtroom! So you have your record and if there’s a conviction, you can appeal to the Second Circuit.”
Agnifilo asserted the questions he asked were important.
Judge Garaufis: “I have a right and an obligation to control the extent to which you can do this. I was watching this witness.”
Agnifilo: “I didn’t raise my voice.”
Judge Garaufis: “I’m not saying you didn’t maintain composure. I’m worried about her composure. You asked her about legal judgments. I took her guilty plea. I thought it was extremely excruciating. You went back to the line of questioning. I may not get everything right, I’m human. Before I’m a judge I’m a human being. I’m not going to allow this to continue!”
On Thursday, a new witness will be called and we’ll be three to report on the day’s events – in depth.
She should be SOBBING because she is EVIL. After reading Dani’s testimony Lauren must realize she is going to be locked up for a long time.
[…] we had not yet received the transcript from yesterday’s session, we did provide a summary of what our on-the-scene reporter, Dianne Lipson, heard as she listened to the exchange between […]
[…] we had not yet received the transcript from yesterday’s session, we did provide a summary of what our on-the-scene reporter, Dianne Lipson, heard as she listened to the exchange between […]
I would expect Agnifilo to request another mistrial this morning, if he didn’t already do it last night, if for no other purpose than preserve his appeal. What happens to redirect and re-cross examination with Salzman-
I think Judge Garaufis already saw how Agnifilo has quickly learned from KR’s twisted mind torturing techniques, and he’s made it clear he won’t have this in his courtroom. Interestingly enough, Agnifilo pointed out that he was using a low voice tone, just like Raniere does. I hope Garaufis decision is for the best and won’t lead us to an actual mistrial.
I doubt it will be a mistrial, that would require the judge to decide he was wrong. Judges seldom do that. A better chance is there will be an appeal, a mistrial declared, and a new trial.
Lauren Salzman has been a cruel calculating bitch for a long time. She was cold insensitive when I first met her in 2001 after she was brought in to fix the mess they left me in after taking a 16-day Intensive. She did nothing to help me and seemed bothered that she was told to sit with me. Her attitude was she wanted to move on and saw helping me as a waste of her time.
It was obvious then that she was fucking Keith as were the rest of the harem.
She definitely perjured herself about Nancy not knowing she was in a sexual relationship with Keith. Lauren and Nancy planned that story for the jury knowing how abhorrent it would be for the world to know the true relationship they had with Keith.
Having sex with mother and daughter simultaneously would be exactly the kind of thing Keith would get off on.
Nancy is a dead ringer for Keith’s mother Vera. Everyone at Keith’s birthday celebration at Pyramid Lake saw a video of Keith’s Mom and the room gasped at the uncanny resemblance
Having sex with Nancy and Lauren would sort of replicate with enhancement the experience of sex with his Mom.
Pedophiles are not born. They are created. Keith I believe was raped by his mother as a boy. I would guess age 12. This would fit with his belief that 12 is a good consenting age. Keith also thought fathers having sex with daughters is ok.
Therefore, Keith is a pedophile, Lauren and Nancy are liars and the DOS women are victims. The sexual and emotional abuse I read about on this blog is extreme domestic violence. The only crime left to prove of this monster Keith is the ultimate DV MURDER!
My sixth sense tells me he has done that as well…..
Wow!!! It is amazing how this monster’s story becomes more horrific by the minute. This information of course explains everything…
I was at Pyramid Lake that weekend and red flags were flying all over the place. It was ESP’s first official Vanguard weekend.
I was taking a walk one evening and Nancy Salzman was having a “chat” with Barbara Bouchey in a car which I thought was strange. Who sits in a car to talk unless its something you don’t want others to hear-
Lauren Salzman was pretty immature but still was a head trainer.
The only married couple above the Proctors rank was Lisa Derek’s (Marv).
People were standing up making grand confessions about feeling bad about not getting their next stripe because it was wrong to feel like they deserved to be promoted and to feel the way they were feeling. Of course, after sharing their feelings with others, those people went to become higher-ups.
Cult was written all over that weekend.
what year was that-
I think 2000 or 2001
My own theory is admittedly rather imaginative. As I understand it, KAR’s mother was ill and may be difficult and short-tempered due to her illness. I don’t know if she was domineering or not. If KAR, an obviously selfish man, had to care for her over a period of time it’s possible that he grew to resent her and may have experienced relief or even pleasure when she died.
His hatred of women is apparent in the punishments that were meted out. Demeaning, debasing, abusing and humiliating women was a game to KAR, as were mind games and psychological torture.
When a woman becomes an inconvenience or a threat to him and he can’t control her, what does he do- Some people won’t be silenced. Questions remain over the deaths of Gina Hutchinson and Kristin Snyder.
Barb Jeske and Pam Cafritz both died of cancer, persuaded that KAR’s tech would save them. Nancy Salzman also developed cancer but received medical treatment when she was indicted. How old were Barbara and Pam when they died- How old was KAR’s mother when she died-
KAR likes to see women suffering and wasting away but does he also like to inflict a lingering, painful death on women of a certain age group-
This was meant as a reply to Anonymous.
Uh, Pyriel. I believe you are very smart. That’s the first I’ve heard anyone speculate about Keith also killing his Mom. It’s not as imaginative of a theory as you say. I’m with you on it.
Any other theories you’ve been keeping secret-
When women can’t be controlled or a threat to Keith, he runs. He did it to me because I challenged him.
Keith is a coward who is a tough guy with weak pliable women.
Yes agreed, he hates women
I think Barb and Pam were in their early 50’s when they passed away. I would like to know what happened to Pam’s remains.
I bet cremated to destroy evidence.
“He was concerned she would have a nervous breakdown.’
lLauren Salzman is a terrorist.
Lauren and her Demonic mother Nancy Salzman terrorized people for twenty years.
And they got rich by terrorizing people.
The FBI confiscated 500,000 dollars in cash from Nancy’s home and there were rumors that Nancy Salzman had as much as 8 million dollars of cash in her house at any one time.
And Lauren drove around in a BMW.
Lauren’s own mother would complain about Lauren’s profligate spending.
Nothing but the best for Lauren.
And through the Salzmans’ friend Emiliano Salinas mother and daughter hoped to get rich off of Mexican booty.
Nancy told Lauren she might one day become a Mexican Princess.
Now that the rotten, reprehensible, deplorable Lauren Salzman is confronted with her evil, wicked ways she turns on the waterworks.
BOO HOO HOO
BOO HOO HOO
Oh, Woe is Me!
Think of how badly the people terrorized by Lauren Salzman felt over the years.
And this Judge, a political hack appointed by Blow Job Bill Clinton, fell for the tears.
Well by cutting off cross examination this senile Judge denied Keith Raniere his Constitutional right to confront his accuser.
One of the most fundamental Rights in the Constitution is for a criminal defendant to confront his accusers.
Judge Nicholas Garaufis
“The judge said these questions are important, but it wasn’t important enough for the witness to have a nervous breakdown.
Yes, Judge those questions are important and highly relevant.
AND BY CUTTING OFF THOSE QUESTIONS YOU VIOLATED THE DEFENDANT’S CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS.
Judge Garaufis: YOU COMMITTED REVERSIBLE ERROR.
wow, somebody help this guy because he really has an obvious mental breakdown…
That Lauren thinks group cohesion is achieved by coercion says a lot about her. She has no business working with people. She probably is very much broken, but she’s not to be trusted with the well being of others.
Lauren is broken only because she has been confronted with her own years of coercion and criminal behavior.
Raniere screwed up a lot of people mentally.
Although I was not in the courtroom, it does not appear that Agnifilo went over the line; however, it does appear Judge Garaufis went over the line. Stopping highly emotional, yet valid questioning is not a proper way to conduct a trial and to criticize the defense attorney so vehemently in front of the jury is unprofessional and unacceptable. This absolutely biases the trial against the defense.
Why did Garaufis take this risk when it was, unlikely, totally unnecessary- Is he afraid of high emotion himself- Is he acting like a controlling and protective father to shield his daughter- Lauren is 42, not 12, she is tough and can take it.
Whatever the reason, it shifts the whole emotional tenor of the trial against the defense. If I were Agnifilo, I’d be asking myself how can I use this to my advantage with the jury- I’d be wondering: How can I re-frame the judge’s outburst as an outburst of conventional middle-class society against a man trying to make a better place- I’d try to lift the trial to a higher level above the sex trafficking and coercion charges as a fight against injustice, free speech and freedom of lifestyle.
How Agnifilo comes back from this will be very insightful to watch.
“Judge Garaufis went over the line.”
“Stopping highly emotional, yet valid questioning is not a proper way to conduct a trial and to criticize the defense attorney so vehemently in front of the jury is unprofessional and unacceptable. ”
Judge Garaufis went way over the line.
Garaufis committed REVERSIBLE ERROR.
Judge Garaufis violated Raniere’s Constitutional Rights.
The most fundamental Right in a criminal trial is for a defendant to confront his accusers.
And the Judge deliberately cut off a relevant line of questioning right in front of the Jury.
If Lauren Salzman was having a nervous breakdown it was only because she was finally confronted with her own decades of terrorist conduct towards others.
And you hit the nail on the head.
This Judge acts like every middle aged female witness is his own daughter in need of protection.
Truth be told for the last twenty years many people needed protection from the likes of Lauren Salzman and her coercive, manipulative ways.
And now since Judge Garaufis was so eager to deny the defendant his Constitutional rights during a trial I must ask who will defend us from the likes of Judge Garaufis-
–I’d try to lift the trial to a higher level above the sex trafficking and coercion charges as a fight against injustice, free speech and freedom of lifestyle.
That someone thinks that the defense can “lift” a trial that is partially about sex trafficking (which is unjust in itself) to a “higher level” so that it is a fight against injustice, free speech, and freedom of lifestyle is hilarious.
Hahahaha In your dreams, Double A
It would have been much better for the judge to calmly stop the testimony for the day and pick it up in the morning. I think the judge was controling his courtroom and showing compassion, he just didn’t do it in the proper manner. However, most of the criticism was not in front of the jury.
Bad news for you sadistic cult types, the judge is humane! and will insist on humane conduct in his courtroom. I know cult-think is premised on harassment and you can’t really deal without it, but it looks like the self-serving spite you invested $$$$ in has FA to do with rational anything. I especially enjoy your advice to Agnifiglio:
‘If I were Agnifilo, I’d be asking myself how can I use this to my advantage with the jury- I’d be wondering: How can I re-frame the judge’s outburst as an outburst of conventional middle-class society against a man trying to make a better place- I’d try to lift the trial to a higher level above the sex trafficking and coercion charges as a fight against injustice, free speech and freedom of lifestyle.’
lets hope he takes your advice and gives it the full Viva Executive Success! treatment, sweet lord!!
ESP = Especially Stupid People- Embezzled Sock Puppets-
Eat Sh*t Psychopaths!
In reflection, I agree “lifting the trial to a higher level” is idealistic nonsense. I have no sympathy for the actions of Raniere in causing others grave harm and he needs to be accountable for that. However, It is clear Judge Garaufis has lost his impartiality and there are serious questions if a fair trial and fair sentencing can be achieved under Judge Garaufis-
Lying Crying Lauren.
What did Salzman lie about- Be sure the use the proper definition of “lie,” it doesn’t mean the person is incorrect.
I don’t know how any women fell for this anti-women stuff of KR. Women have no commitments- That’s ridiculous. We are often absolutely committed for a life time because we have children in a way men are often much more free and able to come and go. KR has a lot of things absolutely the wrong way round.
Only a few fell for it, but it was enough to do a lot of damage.
Frank – I realise that you are a very busy man but I have a query. The trial is attracting headlines in the UK. Of course, certain newspapers are more focussed on the sexual elements of the trial. While reading comments in the Daily Mail, I see that quite a few people seem to be under the impression that DOS recruits were indoctrinated over a short time period. The press obviously doesn’t cover the whole process from a woman joining NXIVM, the many courses are taken, JNess and to DOS. The process and the length of time that people spent in NXIVM isn’t clear to the general public. Another question tends to be “How did they get away with this for so long-” I have replied to some of the comments in the DM and often point commenters to Frank Report. I wonder if you could refer newcomers to an article that would explain all of this to newcomers to this site-
In the usa, we call this the boiling frog syndrome.
The theory being if you put a frog in water and slowly raise the temperature the frog won’t notice and be cooked to death.
The analogy of this being when people are subjected to mild forms of abuse, they adjust to it and it becomes normal.
Then more abuse and more adjustment until it becomes bat shit crazy as you see here.
Those who have not experienced this have a hard time understanding how this is even possible but it is.
This is how all cults operate.
However, while this is true with people, it is false with frogs.
The frog will jump when it gets too hot meaning the frog is smarter than people or more accurately, the frog has better instincts.
There have been references to “red flags” which is your mind telling you something is wrong.
So Nxivm told people to ignore the “red flags” to advance, become better, sure thing, no problem here, God created “red flags” for a reason and the reason is protection.
I heard about Nxivm after the arrests, the main press posted limited info, I searched Nxivm cult, found the pot of gold in Frank Report.
I’m interested in cults, how they work, have heard this all before, still amazed it happens over and over to the unaware.
Why are you amazed it happens over and over- Many people are unaware. They are just as unaware of other MLM scams, there are 4-5 million people who turn 18 years old every year in the U.S. alone. Counting those first ten years of being of legal age, the primary targeted age with less awareness of MLM scams, that’s 40-50 million people. Multiple those numbers by 20 to get the worldwide numbers. There is no shortage of “red meat” when it comes to MLM or other scams. They don’t teach about cults and scams in school. While the internet has helped, it’s obviously not enough. What percentage of people do you think have even heard of Raniere or NXIVM, or if they have, it was a passing story that didn’t register very much, because they were too busy playing their video game or watching “Game of Thrones” on TV.
I find myself wondering if Raniere and the slaves had a “What to do if we get caught” plan. Is Salzman admitting some crimes, whilst keeping quiet about other possibly worse crimes- Raniere said on camera that he’d had people killed. What do the top tier have to say about that-
Once we see the questions the Agnifilo was pounding away at Lauren Salzman, people will have a better understanding of why the Judge cut him off. It’s a you had to be there kind of thing to fully understand by those who were not in attendance.
Raniere was writing things on post-it notes, handing them to his counsel at the table. Teny Geragos walked these questions up to Marc Agnifilo who would them rapid fire them at Lauren Salzman.
Several questions were asked and answered and asked again. “Did you love Raniere on such and such a date”- Agnifilo would ask another date.
Knowing the FR gets the transcripts, it would be interesting to see the line of questioning the Judge finally shut down.
100% Raniere was enjoying his torture of Lauren Salzman via his puppet Agnifilo. Only goes to show, some lawyers will do anything for a dollar.
Raniere was smiling and waving on his way out of the courtroom at the end of the day.
Torture is Raniere’s greatest pleasure. If allowed, he’d would have loved to put Lauren Salzman on the floor and kick the shit out of her while his attorneys emotionally beat her up.
“Raniere was smiling and waving on his way out of the courtroom at the end of the day.” This says quite a bit about him in my book. He never cared about her, just as he never cared about anyone. He is happy to see her cry and suffer over what he got her involved in. Another person would have been stricken or at least uncomfortable.
What a creep. I hope he loses and gets the book thrown at him in terms of prison time. Then he can derive his limited future pleasure from giving interviews to the author who decides to write an in depth book about him and his twisted mentality. Possible title: “American Monster.”
Yes, but it’s going to much harder for Raniere to sue Agnifilo when he is convicted, since he was Raniere’s hand puppet, just like everyone who works with Raniere.
–Raniere was smiling and waving on his way out of the courtroom at the end of the day.
Fuck him and Agnifilo.
In time, torture is coming to VanFraud.
There was another Defendant who was smiling and laughing his way out of the courtroom. He was accused of killing multiple women, including elderly and defenseless victims.
His birth name was Richard Ramirez. He smiled as he held up his hand and showed the world the Pentagram he carved into his flesh. His nickname was NIGHTSTALKER.
Thanks for providing what I think is a crucial detail, that Raniere was actually directing Agnifilo by passing him post-it notes. I think that makes clear this was likely a badgering and even abusive line of questioning, driven by a cruel manipulator.
thank you for this crucial information. The Judge was right to shut down the harassment by proxy – kr’s last gasp on the Bronfman dollar.
Agnifilo is supposedly a great trial lawyer. But it seems he was more interested in breaking Lauren Salzman down to tears than tdefending Raniere. Of course, Raniere knows the emotional buttons of all of his inner circle.
Did he just order Agnifilo to torture her, because he could-
Lawyers try to break down witnesses all the time in order to defend their clients. This is nothing new. At my first court hearing with Amway, Charles Bundren, the Amway lawyer was literally screaming at the top of his lungs, with veins on his neck and forehead popping out of his blood-filled and red colored head when he was “asking” me questions on the stand, by repeatedly asking me if I had sent an email to an Amway distributor and referring to them as “F*CKING A$$HOLES!!!” I was in the U.S. Navy and had heard these words quite a few times before, but never with the fervor Bundren put into it. He truly deserved an Academy Award for his performance. Of course, the emotion does not come through in the court transcript. Although this is not my “style” I did use these words to get under Amway’s skin, which is a much longer story. He kept repeating the question, over and over, with a new email each time. Eventually, after about 25 of these tirades, my lawyer objected and said something to the effect of “I think we get the point,” but the judge said he gave each side one hour to make their case and each side can use that time however they want, so that’s how we filled up most of Amway’s hour. Since Amway knew they had no case, the settlement agreement allows me to do almost everything i was doing before and it’s posted on my websites.
I also had a second experience when I worked at a utility power plant. It was during the construction phase, and a crane fell on a temporary building during a microburst thunderstorm and killed two people. I was the meteorological system engineer and gave a videotaped deposition. The opposing lawyer tried to trap me when asking me when I was an officer in the Navy whether I felt responsible for my men (there were no women on ships in those days, and that’s a whole separate story as well). I said of course I did, and then he tried to transition the same responsibility/guilt to the civilian power plant and also tried to establish that the meteorological system should have warned of the approaching storm.
Of course, both of these topics are BS, and I pushed back on these lines of questioning. He then got miffed at me and asked me whether I was taking the deposition seriously, because two people died. I answered that I was taking the situation seriously, with emphasis on the “I,” implying that he wasn’t, and that was the end of the questioning.
What was particularly frustrating was that I had to answer all of the questions, even when my company lawyer objected, so the judge could make the decision to sustain over overrule the objection in court, because they could skip over my answer if the judge agreed with the objection. It was quite ridiculous.
This is the adversarial nature of our judicial system, many people don’t understand how slimy it is. There’s a reason why lawyers have bad reputations, the system is set up that way intentionally. But it pays them well to inflct stress on others. Raniere should have kept his d!ck in his pants and been a lawyer, he could have excelled.